Cannabis in Morocco


Cannabis in Morocco: The Complexity of Cultivation and Legality

Get the facts on cannabis in Morocco – its production, legal status, effects on the economy and culture, and potential for legalization down the road.


Wander through Morocco’s mountain villages and you may notice a distinctive herbal aroma in the air. Look closer at the terraced farming plots and you’ll likely spot the signature green leafy crop – cannabis. Far from a new phenomenon, cannabis has been cultivated across Morocco for centuries. While technically illegal today, this thriving shadow industry underpins whole village economies and Moroccan culture is rife with cannabis motifs.

Yet as more countries move towards legalization, Morocco remains deeply conflicted on this nuanced issue tied to tradition and livelihoods but mired in criminality. Policy veers between decriminalizing use while cracking down on farming and trade. At the grassroots, cannabis provides a lifeline for the marginalized, an excuse for harassment by authorities, and endless artistic inspiration.

This complex relationship reveals the tensions within Moroccan society itself. Cannabis opens dialogues about public health versus the economy, stigma and taboos, transparency in governance, and justice. As attitudes shift globally, Morocco stands at a crossroads in reexamining its cannabis identity. This guide will delve into the culture, economics, and politics shaping cannabis’ past, present and future in Morocco.

History and Origins of Cannabis in Morocco

  • Cannabis has been cultivated across Morocco for centuries, particularly in the Rif Mountains.
  • Moroccans traditionally used cannabis for food, textiles, ropes, medicines, and spiritual rituals.
  • The cannabis variety produced in Morocco and regionally is specifically kif – relatively mild compared to skunk strains.
  • The town of Ketama in the Rif Mountains has long been the epicenter of cultivation. The famed strain Ketama Gold originates here.
  • European interest in Moroccan hashish emerged in the 18th century among artistic circles.
  • Cannabis gained a seedy reputation under French colonial authorities in the 20th century.

Despite the prohibition, traditional cannabis cultivation continues in the Rif as a core part of the culture.

Production and Economy of Cannabis in Morocco

  • Morocco is considered the world’s top producer of cannabis resin (hashish), producing an estimated 70% globally.
  • The total illegal cannabis market in Morocco is valued at up to $10 billion annually by some estimates.
  • The Rif Mountains produce over 700 tonnes annually according to Moroccan government figures.
  • Entire village economies in the Rif revolve around cannabis cultivation and hashish production.
  • While illegal, cannabis provides a vital income source as a low-barrier cash crop and employs up to 800,000 Moroccans.
  • Yet clashes between traffickers and police over control of the cannabis trade continue.

Cannabis constitutes an enormous shadow industry that profoundly impacts local societies and livelihoods.

Current Legal Status of Cannabis in Morocco

  • Cannabis has been illegal in Morocco since 1954, yet policies have vacillated between strict enforcement and tolerance.
  • Cultivating, selling, and transporting cannabis remains a punishable criminal offense. Jail sentences of up to 30 years can be imposed for trafficking.
  • However, cannabis use itself was decriminalized in 2021, with possession of small amounts carrying just a small fine now.
  • In the past decade, Morocco has ramped up seizures and dismantling of farms as international pressure grows.
  • But crackdowns sparked local unrest in the Rif, where cannabis represents economic survival. Enforcement remains inconsistent.
  • Stigma around use persists in mainstream society, but tourists smoking openly are rarely bothered.

Morocco walks a fine line between appeasing international allies, upholding local tradition, and facing economic realities.

Arguments Around Legalization in Morocco

  • Proponents argue legalization could generate taxes and tourism revenue, regulate quality, and empower marginalized farmers.
  • But religious leaders express concern about increased access and socially normalizing drug use which is forbidden in Islam.
  • Youth advocacy groups like Alliance Marocaine Cannabis Criticize vague laws and arbitrary enforcement that criminalize locals for tradition.
  • The Moroccan government remains opposed, fearing legalization could tarnish Morocco’s image and relationship with allies.
  • Neighboring countries like Spain do provide a blueprint for transitioning to legalized systems.

Views are mixed on whether legalization is the right path forward for Morocco.

Cannabis in Moroccan Culture and Tourism

Despite illegality, cannabis culture abounds:

  • Cannabis leaf motifs feature prominently on crafts, textiles, jewelry, and art for sale targeting tourists.
  • Riffian music contains references to cannabis cultivation and hashish use.
  • The annual Ketama Traditional Music Festival centers cannabis in Rif cultural heritage.
  • “Cannabis tours” take visitors to see farms and production, though their legal status is questionable.
  • The Cannabricool Hemp Museum in Tangier exhibits cannabis’ history in Morocco and globally.
  • While banned from public promotion, kif bars persist as social institutions, especially in the north.

The Future of Cannabis in Morocco

Policy evolution indicates gradual openness to reform:

  • In 2021, Morocco adopted a law allowing regulated medical cannabis production for export once implementing guidelines are set.
  • There are small signs of growing political support for further legalization or decriminalization.
  • However, legal recreational cannabis seems unlikely in the near-term given social taboos and government hesitation.
  • But as public attitudes shift, especially regarding the economic benefits, legislative changes may gather support.

Progress is slow, but the conversation around cannabis continues to develop in Morocco.


Cannabis reveals the intricacies within Moroccan society itself – tensions between tradition and modernity, economic realities and social attitudes, local livelihoods and global policy. For centuries, it has provided sustenance and purpose but also stigma and struggle. As the world progresses toward legalization, Morocco grapples with reconciling cannabis’ complex past and future.

But there is hope in thoughtful dialogue, emphasis on social justice, and respect for the plant’s deep regional roots. With an eye towards public welfare over profits, Morocco has the chance to be a model for progressive, ethical cannabis policy in the Arab world. The next chapter of this nuanced narrative remains unwritten. Yet with understanding and courage, Morocco can craft an approach that balances tradition, reform, and compassion. The seeds for a better future have been planted – time will tell how the story unfolds.

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Is cannabis legal in Morocco?

No, cannabis is illegal in Morocco. However, personal use in small amounts was decriminalized in 2021. Cultivating and selling cannabis remains a punishable criminal offense.

Can you smoke hash openly in Morocco?

It’s technically illegal but Morocco has a long tradition of cannabis use. In tourist areas, smoking may be tolerated though discretion is advised. Purchasing is still criminalized.

What regions of Morocco grow cannabis?

Morocco’s Rif Mountains have historically been the epicenter of cannabis production, especially around Ketama. Cultivation also occurs across the north and southeast.

What are the penalties for cannabis possession in Morocco?

After decriminalization, minor possession for personal use carries a small fine. Trafficking and selling cannabis can lead to years of jail time if caught and prosecuted.

Will cannabis be legalized in Morocco?

While there is growing support for legalization or decriminalization, recreational cannabis seems unlikely soon given government hesitation. But medicinal cannabis legalization has progressed.


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